URL The science plan for the GLP project (GLP Transition Team 2005) provides an introduction to the state and direction of LUCC research in the early 21st century, while the subsequent periodic reports of the GLP provide readers with a more focused look at important topics in LUCC research. traditional land-use zoning practices (in which land uses are segregated and spread out) and mixed land-use zoning practices (in which land uses are mixed together and spatially concentrated). It's on the shorter side, coming in at just two hours and 15 minutes, but it has both multiple-choice and free-response sections, and its questions require a wide range of skills and content knowledge. Enfield, NH: Science Publishers, 2001. Journal of Applied Meteorology, 41, 689-701, doi:10.1175/1520-0450(2002)0412.0.CO;2. Stockholm: IGBP Secretariat, 2005. Nonetheless, land-change decisions may affect the vulnerabilities of individuals, households, communities, businesses, non-profit organizations, and ecosystems to the effects of climate change.21,22 A farmer’s choice of crop rotation in response to price signals affects his or her farm income’s susceptibility to drought, for example. URL Together, remote sensing and field inventory data, as well as related ecological and socioeconomic data, allow many conclusions about land-use and land-cover change with very high confidence. CBD ap human geography, what is it about? Land-use and land-cover changes are thus rarely the product of a single factor. This article uses a modified version of this framework to structure its discussion of LUCC. | Detail ↩, Hammer, R. B., S. I. Stewart, and V. C. Radeloff, 2009: Demographic trends, the wildland–urban interface, and wildfire management. Thus the specific vulnerabilities resulting from the specific ways in which people, both as individuals and as collectives, will respond to anticipated or observed climate change impacts are less well understood than the biophysical dimensions of this problem. Shapes of Countries By Maggie Habershaw and Allison Higgins 2. Search this site. AP Human Geography. URL 9: Human Health).45 Deeper discussion of the factors commonly influencing adaptation decisions at household, municipal, state, and federal levels is provided in Chapter 28 (Ch. Research on LUCC is essentially of multidisciplinary nature, attracting scientists from a range of fields, including but not limited to economics, sociology, geography, GIScience (geographic information systems [GIS] and remote sensing in particular), and demography. Similarly, chapters addressing sectors examine specific land-use matters. The combination of residential location choices with wildfire occurrence dramatically illustrates how the interactions between land use and climate processes can affect climate change impacts and vulnerabilities. Journal of Geophysical Research, 116, D06102, doi:10.1029/2010JD014775. Landscape and Urban Planning, 83, 340-354, doi:10.1016/j.landurbplan.2007.06.002. Decisions about land use and land cover can therefore affect, positively or negatively, how much our climate will change and what kind of vulnerabilities humans and natural systems will face as a result. Start studying AP Human Geography Unit V - Agricultural and Rural Land Use. 4). Lily Taylor. Specifically students are required to … | Detail ↩, Sohl, T. L., B. M. Sleeter, K. L. Sayler, M. A. Bouchard, R. R. Reker, S. L. Bennett, R. R. Sleeter, R. L. Kanengieter, and Z. Zhu, 2012: Spatially explicit land-use and land-cover scenarios for the Great Plains of the United States. The influences of climate on vegetation and soils, and thus on land cover and land use, are relatively well understood, and a number of well-validated mathematical models are used to investigate potential consequences of climate change for ecosystem processes, structure, and function. These patterns affect climate and will be affected by climate change. Impervious surfaces have a wide range of environmental impacts and thus represent a key means by which developed lands modify the movement of water, energy, and living things. 7: Forests). The U.S. acquires, produces, and distributes substantial data that characterize the nation’s land cover and land use. Second, certain land uses and land covers are simply difficult to modify, regardless of desire or intent. b Special uses represent rural transportation, rural parks and wildlife, defense and industrial, plus miscellaneous farm and other special uses. C6. Non-mechanical disturbances are caused by fire, wind, floods, animals, and other similar phenomena. | Detail ↩, ,, 2010: Climate Leadership Academy: Promising Practices in Adaptation & Resilience, A Resource Guide for Local Leaders, Version 1.0. A national analysis of landowner decisions. The regrowth of forests and increases of conservation-related forest and crop management practices have also increased carbon storage. that underpin the proximate causes” (p. 143). Carbon storage in urban areas can reach densities as high as those found in tropical forests, with most of that carbon found in soils, but also in vegetation, landfills, and the structures and contents of buildings.59 Urban and suburban areas tend to be net sources of carbon to the atmosphere, whereas exurban and rural areas tend to be net sinks.60 Effects of urban development patterns on carbon storage and emissions due to land and fossil fuel use are topics of current research and can be affected by land-use planning choices. Land use and land cover play critical roles in the interaction between the land and the atmosphere, influencing climate at local, regional, and global scales.34 There is growing evidence that land use, land cover, and land management affect the U.S. climate in several ways: Individuals, businesses, non-profits, and governments have the capacity to make land-use decisions to adapt to the effects of climate change. Key messages were identified during this period and discussed in two phases, associated with major chapter drafts. Ecological Applications, 15, 799-805, doi:10.1890/04-1413. Eos, Transactions, American Geophysical Union, 93, 473-474, doi:10.1029/2012EO470001. Population Division Working Paper No. Adaptation options (those aimed at coping with the effects of climate change) include varying the local mix of vegetation and concrete to reduce heat in cities or elevating homes to reduce exposure to sea level rise or flooding. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 104, 13582-13587, doi:10.1073/pnas.0700144104. The basic processes underlying the biophysics of interactions between the land surface and atmosphere are well understood. Berlin: Springer Verlag, 2006. | Detail ↩, ,, 2012: Chicago Green Homes Program: City of Chicago. | Detail ↩, Zhu, Z., M. Bouchard, D. Butman, T. Hawbaker, Z. Li, J. Liu, S. Liu, C. McDonald, R. Reker, K. Sayler, B. Sleeter, T. Sohl, S. Stackpoole, A. Wein, and Z. Zhu, 2011: Baseline and Projected Future Carbon Storage and Greenhouse-Gas Fluxes in the Great Plains Region of the United States. | Detail ↩, ,, 2007: City of Homer Climate Action Plan: Reducing the Threat of Global Climate Change Through Government and Community Efforts. Additionally, as crops are increasingly used to make fuel, the potential for reducing net carbon emissions through replacement of fossil fuels represents a possible land-based carbon emissions reduction strategy, albeit one that is complicated by many natural and economic interactions that will determine the ultimate effect of these strategies on emissions (Ch. U.S. A decision to include culverts underneath a coastal roadway may facilitate migration of a salt marsh inland as sea level rises. Land-cover change and management accounts for about one-third of all carbon released into the atmosphere by people globally since 1850. Map is a visual representation of an area or selected features of Earth, typically on a flat surface with the help of traditional symbols on the scale which is reduced as compared to actual scale because various types of natural and man-made features are located on Earth and their collective representation is not possible on a single map. Land Use and the Carbon Cycle: Advances in Integrated Science, Management and Policy, D.G. Mechanical disturbances include forest clear-cutting, earthmoving, scraping, chaining, reservoir drawdown, and other similar human-induced changes. A Technical Input report to the National Climate Assessment10 summarizes the literature and basic understanding of interactions between the atmosphere and land surface that influence climate. Land Economics, 84, 529-550, doi:10.3368/le.84.4.529. Taylor & Francis Series in Remote Sensing Applications. detection and monitoring of urban expansion and land cover change (with emphasis on remote sensing methods), understanding the driving forces of differential rates and patterns of urban growth, and; determining the local-regional impacts and consequences of those changes. The downloadable PDF is the official version of the 2014 National Climate Assessment. All facts & pictures A few interesting Facts for use of the product. In the U.S., even though land-use decisions are highly decentralized and strongly influenced by Constitutional protection of private property, the Supreme Court has also defined a role for government input into some land-use decisions.48 Thus on the one hand farmers may make private decisions to plant different crops in response to changing growing conditions and/or market prices. URL Choices about land-use and land-cover patterns have affected and will continue to affect how vulnerable or resilient human communities and ecosystems are to the effects of climate change. 15: Soil carbon dynamics in agricultural systems, Land Use and the Carbon Cycle: Advances in Integrated Science, Management and Policy. A discriminatory real estate practice in North America in which members of minority groups are prevented from obtaining money to purchase homes or property in … | Detail ↩, ,, 2012: 2010 Census Urban and Rural Classification and Urban Area Criteria. Urbanization is having significant local impacts on weather and climate. URL Land Use and the Carbon Cycle: Advances in Integrated Science, Management and Policy, D.G. Extensive literature – as well as textbooks – documents this understanding, as do models of land surface processes and properties. Redlining. This book, a synthesis of a set of NASA-funded projects under the Land-Cover and Land-Use Change Program, brings together detailed case studies, regional analyses, and globally scaled efforts on mapping LUCC and understanding its driving forces and broad consequences. 14: Effects of wildland fire management on forest carbon stores. | Detail ↩, Sorooshian, S., J. Li, K. Hsu, and X. Gao, 2011: How significant is the impact of irrigation on the local hydroclimate in California’s Central Valley? 14: Effects of wildland fire management on forest carbon stores, Sea Level Rise Adaptation Strategy for San Diego Bay, Climate Leadership Academy: Promising Practices in Adaptation & Resilience, A Resource Guide for Local Leaders, Version 1.0, Izzaurralde, R. C., W. M. Post, and T. O. Black, A. H. Goldstein, B. E. Law, W. C. Oechel, K. T. Paw, and R. L. Scott, Reduction in carbon uptake during turn of the century drought in western North America, Living with a Rising Bay: Vulnerability and Adaptation in San Francisco Bay and on its Shoreline, Shepherd, J. M., H. Pierce, and A. J. Negri, Rainfall modification by major urban areas: Observations from spaceborne rain radar on the TRMM satellite, Late 20th century land change in the Central California Valley Ecoregion, Sleeter, B. M., T. L. Sohl, T. R. Loveland, R. F. Auch, W. Acevedo, M. A. Drummond, K. L. Sayler, and S. V. Stehman, Land-cover change in the conterminous United States from 1973 to 2000, Sleeter, B. M., T. L. Sohl, M. A. Bouchard, R. R. Reker, C. E. Soulard, W. Acevedo, G. E. Griffith, R. R. Sleeter, R. F. Auch, K. L. Sayler, S. Prisley, and Z. Zhu, Scenarios of land use and land cover change in the conterminous United States: Utilizing the special report on emission scenarios at ecoregional scales, Sohl, T. L., B. M. Sleeter, K. L. Sayler, M. A. Bouchard, R. R. Reker, S. L. Bennett, R. R. Sleeter, R. L. Kanengieter, and Z. Zhu, Spatially explicit land-use and land-cover scenarios for the Great Plains of the United States, U.S. Cities and Climate Change: Urban, Infrastructure, and Vulnerability Issues, Technical Input Report Series, U.S. National Climate Assessment, Sorooshian, S., J. Li, K. Hsu, and X. Gao, How significant is the impact of irrigation on the local hydroclimate in California’s Central Valley? Carbon Management, 2, 41-47, doi:10.4155/cmt.10.43. 133 pp., ICLEI-Local Governments for Sustainability USA, San Diego, CA. A., R. DeFries, G. P. Asner, C. Barford, G. Bonan, S. R. Carpenter, S. F. Chapin, III, M. T. Coe, G. C. Daily, H. K. Gibbs, J. H. Helkowski, T. Holloway, E. A. Howard, C. J. Kucharik, C. Monfreda, J. Above, development along Colorado’s Front Range. By= Samuel Peter definition Table of Contents Unit I. Geography: Its Nature and Perspectives (5-10%) Unit Introduction; Geography as a field of inquiry; Evolution of key geographical concepts and models associated with notable geographers A major study by the U.S. Geological Survey is estimating carbon stocks in vegetation and soils of the U.S., and this inventory will clarify the potential for capturing greenhouse gasses by land-use change (an early result is reported in Sohl et al. In general, scenarios that assume continued high growth produce more rapid increases in developed areas of all densities and in areas covered by impervious surfaces (paved areas and buildings) by 2050.13,14 Land-use scenarios project that exurban and suburban areas will expand nationally by 15% to 20% between 2000 and 2050,14 based on high- and low-growth scenarios respectively. 38. Figure 13.2: Projections of Settlement Densities (2010-2050), Figure 13.3: Projected Land Covers (2010-2050), Two decades of urban climate research: A review of turbulence, exchanges of energy and water, and the urban heat island, The effect of irrigation on warm season precipitation in the southern Great Plains, Journal of Climate and Applied Meteorology, Berke, P. R., D. R. Godschalk, E. J. Kaiser, and D. A. Rodriguez, Bierwagen, B. G., D. M. Theobald, C. R. Pyke, A. Choate, P. Groth, J. V. Thomas, and P. Morefield, National housing and impervious surface scenarios for integrated climate impact assessments, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Observational evidence for reduction of daily maximum temperature by croplands in the Midwest United States, Empirical evidence for a recent slowdown in irrigation-induced cooling, Brown, D. G., K. M. Johnson, T. R. Loveland, and D. M. Theobald, Rural land-use trends in the conterminous United States, 1950-2000, Ch. Land Use and the Carbon Cycle: Advances in Integrated Science, Management and Policy, D.G. Photogrammetric Engineering & Remote Sensing, 68, 1091-1099. | Detail ↩, Pearson, T., and S. Brown, 2013: Ch. Brown, Robinson, D.T., French, N.H., and Reed, B.C., Eds. The aspects of land-use planning that can enable climate change adaptation are well understood and examples demonstrate where actions are being taken. Photogrammetric Engineering & Remote Sensing, 73, 337-341. Part II: The precipitation of irrigated water and changes in precipitation recycling. The number of buildings lost in the 25 most destructive fires in California history increased significantly in the 1990s and 2000s compared to the previous three decades.19 These losses are one example of how changing development patterns can interact with a changing climate to create dramatic new risks. 107 pp., Institute for Sustainable Communities, Vermont. Application: Very Important GLP Transition Team. Since 1973, satellite data show that the overall rate of land-cover changes nationally has averaged about 0.33% per year. Part II: The precipitation of irrigated water and changes in precipitation recycling, Modeling the atmospheric response to irrigation in the Great Plains. Agricultural density - farmers per unit of arable land. Science, 313, 940-943, doi:10.1126/science.1128834. Choices about land-use and land-cover patterns have affected and will continue to affect our vulnerability to the effects of climate change. URL Home. 7: Forests; Ch. This increases the exposure of urban populations to the effects of extreme heat events. 2004, provides a bird’s-eye view, and status quo, of LUCC research, with a focus on linking LUCC data with socioeconomic and other processes on the ground and envisioning the corresponding consequences on human-environment systems. Geography - Geography - Human geography: Since 1945 human geography has contained five main divisions. Conversion of rain-fed cropland to irrigated agriculture further intensifies the impacts of agricultural conversion on temperature. It is appropriate for students, land change scientists, and policymakers. Society & Natural Resources, 22, 777-782, doi:10.1080/08941920802714042. Two edited volumes, Singh, et al. Part I: General impacts on precipitation and the energy budget, Hollman, F. W., T. J. Mulder, and J. E. Kallan, Methodology and Assumptions for Population Projections of the United States: 1999 to 2100. The boundaries of a country and the shape of the land that it encompasses canpresent problems for a country, or it can help to unify a country. | Detail ↩, Jones, C. Adaire, C. J. Nickerson, and P. W. Heisey, 2013: New uses of old tools? | Detail ↩, Niyogi, D., P. Pyle, M. Lei, S. P. Arya, C. M. Kishtawal, M. Shepherd, F. Chen, and B. Wolfe, 2011: Urban modification of thunderstorms: An observational storm climatology and model case study for the Indianapolis urban region. Field inventories, especially of agriculture and forestry, provide very reliable data products that describe land cover as well as land-use change. A number of examples and field studies are consistent in demonstrating effects of land use and land-cover change on the climate of the United States. | Detail ↩, Shepherd, J. M., H. Pierce, and A. J. Negri, 2002: Rainfall modification by major urban areas: Observations from spaceborne rain radar on the TRMM satellite. Giri 2012 is relatively more technical, focusing on remote-sensing methods and applications. Turner, B. L., II, David Skole, Steven Sanderson, Günther Fischer, Louise Fresco, and Rik Leemans. mixed economy definition ap human geography. These projects can help your students experiment with these ideas in unique and creative ways. Environmental Research Letters, 4, 014010, doi:10.1088/1748-9326/4/1/014010. Comparison of model results with ground and remote-sensing data, Stephens, S. L., M. A. Adams, J. Handmer, F. R. Kearns, B. Leicester, J. Leonard, and M. A. Moritz, Urban–wildland fires: How California and other regions of the US can learn from Australia, Expansion of the US wildland-urban interface, Table 1. Construction near forests and wildlands is growing. AP Human Geography: Land Use. Land-cover projections by Wear13 show that both cropland and forest are projected to decline most relative to 1997 (by 6% to 7%, respectively, by 2050) under a scenario of high population and economic growth and least (by 4% and 6%, respectively) under lower-growth scenarios. Land-use and land-cover-related options for mitigating climate change (reducing the speed and amount of climate change) include expanding forests to accelerate removal of carbon from the atmosphere, modifying the way cities are built and organized to reduce energy and motorized transportation demands, and altering agricultural management practices to increase carbon storage in soil. C4. Projections of both land-use and land-cover changes will depend to some degree on rates of population and economic growth. Land Use and Cover Change. Brown, Robinson, D.T., French, N.H., and Reed, B.C., Eds., Cambridge University Press, 331-358. Greenhouse gas mitigation with agriculture sector policies. In addition to emissions of heat-trapping greenhouse gases from energy, industrial, agricultural, and other activities, humans also affect climate through changes in land use (activities taking place on land, like growing food, cutting trees, or building cities) and land cover (the physical characteristics of the land surface, including grain crops, trees, or concrete).10 For example, cities are warmer than the surrounding countryside because the greater extent of paved areas in cities affects how water and energy are exchanged between the land and the atmosphere. ), disagreement or lack of opinions among experts. | Detail ↩, Homer, C., J. Dewitz, J. Fry, M. Coan, N. Hossain, C. Larson, N. Herold, A. McKerrow, J. N. VanDriel, and J. Wickham, 2007: Completion of the 2001 national land cover database for the conterminous United States. Choices about land use and land management affect the amount of greenhouse gases entering and leaving the atmosphere and, therefore, provide opportunities to reduce climate change (Ch. 13: Managing carbon: Ecological limits and constraints. 16: U.S. Policies and greenhouse gas mitigation in agriculture, Karl, T. R., B. E. Gleason, M. J. Menne, J. R. McMahon, R. R. Heim, Jr., M. J. Singh, R. B., Jefferson Fox, and Yukio Himiyama, eds. | Detail ↩, Stephens, S. L., M. A. Adams, J. Handmer, F. R. Kearns, B. Leicester, J. Leonard, and M. A. Moritz, 2009: Urban–wildland fires: How California and other regions of the US can learn from Australia. International Journal of Climatology, 23, 1-26, doi:10.1002/joc.859. URL Lack of parks, green spaces, and trees causes heat island effect . Geist, Helmut J., and Eric F. Lambin. Arnfield, A. J., 2003: Two decades of urban climate research: A review of turbulence, exchanges of energy and water, and the urban heat island. Science, 170, 1265-1274, doi:10.1126/science.170.3964.1265. Report prepared for 2013 National Climate Assessment. In their introduction to the report, Lambin, Geist, and Ronald Rindfuss argue that researchers are approaching an “overarching theory” of LUCC “that explain[s] change in the behavior of people as well as land-cover/use change” (p. 7). Though humans have been modifying land to … | Detail ↩, Richter, D., and R. A. Houghton, 2011: Gross CO2 fluxes from land-use change: Implications for reducing global emissions and increasing sinks. For example, retiring farmland to sequester carbon may be difficult to achieve if crop prices rise,57 such as has occurred in recent years in response to the fast-growing market for biofuels. Brown, Robinson, D.T., French, N.H., and Reed, B.C., Eds., Cambridge University Press, 403-430. A number of books also provide overviews of LUCC research. While the most-suitable agricultural lands tend to be among the first wildlands converted to agriculture, increased agricultural expansion usually entails diminishing returns on agricultural yields. | Detail ↩, Souch, C., and S. Grimmond, 2006: Applied climatology: Urban climate. International Journal of Climatology, 30, 2045-2054, doi:10.1002/joc.2094. 187 pp., San Francisco Bay Conservation and Development Commission, San Francisco, CA. The goal of the GLP is to focus on three areas: LUCC dynamics, LUCC consequences, and “integrating analysis and modeling for land sustainability” (p. 9). Land use (such as agriculture, pasture, or plantation) describes human use of land, while land cover (such as forest or desert) describes the biophysical characteristics of the land surface. Global Change Research Program In addition, from December 2011 through June 2012 the author team held biweekly teleconferences. | Detail ↩, Bonan, G. B., 2001: Observational evidence for reduction of daily maximum temperature by croplands in the Midwest United States. . Land use change may affect land cover, while changing land cover may similarly affect land use. There are, however, scientific uncertainties regarding the magnitudes of effects resulting from specific actions designed to leverage this linkage for mitigation. The evidence base for this key message includes scientific studies on the carbon cycle at both global and local scales (summarized in Izzauralde et al. AP HUMAN GEOGRAPHY ADVICE • #3 Practice--Go to the College Board Web Site and look at the previous questions. Assumptions about changes in household size and how concentrated Urban development will be using to my!, doi:10.1073/pnas.0700144104 Post, and Rik Leemans contained five main divisions the fertile soil below to researchers interested technical... A special seminar in 1999 52.2 ( 2002 ) 0412.0.CO ; 2 ” framework for understanding tropical LUCC, N.! 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