It is difficult to form fiberglass cloth around a sharp 90° bend. Completely replacing a stringer is often easier than replacing a section. You can use typical cutting tools with the piece of wood supported on a work bench. If the extra thickness is present, try to duplicate it. Use a degreaser or detergents in areas that may be contaminated with gasoline or oil residue before wiping with solvent. UV degradation of the epoxy will not be a problem and in many circumstances, the appearance of the repair does not matter. Our stringer system is built for each boat, so we have the ability to move things around to add features and increase fuel capacity yet maintain an optimal center of gravity.” Inactive cores are made of low-density foam, cardboard tube, or in the case of molded stringers, no core at all. Where stringers end at a bulkhead or the transom, wrap the glass tabbing onto them in the same manner. Since 1992 we've made hundreds of thousands of PRISMA preforms that are used in boats and marine craft, semi trailers, composite bridge decks, automotive applications, and … Delamination and skin-stringer separation in particular is one of the main failure mechanisms of laminated composite structures, together with fibre fracture and matrix cracking. The … Imagine you have a flat piece of steel. Note: The final two or three coats may be tinted with WEST SYSTEM 501 (white), 502 (black) or 503 (gray) pigment or with 420 Aluminum Powder (gray) . 8-Step Pressure-Treated Cedar-Tone Pine Stair Stringer Get head starts building outdoor stairs with Get head starts building outdoor stairs with this durable, cedar-tone stair stringer. All surface should be clean, dry and sanded. Use a stiff brush on heavily textured surfaces like roving. Apply a liberal amount of thickened epoxy/406 mixture to one side of each contact area. When you remove the old stringer, you will need reference points to locate the new one. Heavy-Duty Bolted Stringer. This paper proposes the solution to reduce the energy consumption of forming machine for the composite stringer manufacturing by applying the lean manufacturing techniques. A method and apparatus for the manufacture of fiber reinforced structures including the tooling and its use in the manufacture of reinforced structures. To avoid sanding between coats, apply each coat before the previous coat reaches its final cure. Step 10: After the complete fuselage is moved to the next station, it is installed in a layup machine with headstock and tailstock, and overwound with dry carbon fiber to form the fuselage skin.This image shows the filler material that has been robotically placed within the ring grooves; as the skin covers the grooves, it creates external stringers to stiffen the fuselage structure, says MTorres. The thickness of shape of the stringers can be well controlled, and they will all come out of the mold the same. Thanks to the skill and experience of our master team of fiberglass craftspeople, care is taken at every step in the process to ensure the finest, longest-lasting boat at the best price. Box Beam Bolted Stringer… You will need to be creative. Dry the area thoroughly. Since most of the work is in the bilge area, you do not need to apply a final finish. There are a few different types of composite decking and all are unsuitable, simply because they're not structural elements. Looking at the suspected area of damage may be as easy as opening a hatch, but don’t count on it. Interestingly, there are no ABYC or CE standards on how boat hulls and stringers should be built. The tooling 30 may be made of metal, such as aluminum, and may comprise a channel 31 sized and shaped to correspond to a size and shape of an outer surface 32 of one or more walls of the composite stringer 12 or the composite stringer section 16. Vinylester resin was not used widely in boats until the 1990s, so most boats older than that are at risk of getting blisters. Apply two or three coats of epoxy before the lay-up reaches its final cure. Wet out all contact surfaces of the new and existing core. Stringers that are removed or have broken away from the hull may allow parts of the hull to sag. Brace or tape the stringer in position as necessary. Grind the edges of the skin to 12-to-1 scarf angles to prepare for the skin replacement. A fiberglass laminate is very flexible, so all fiberglass boats rely on longitudinal stringers and athwartships frames and bulkheads to maintain the hull's designed shape. The fiberglass stringers can be molded over plywood – satisfactory when done correctly – but more likely these days they are laminated over PVC foam or laid up in a separate mold and bonded into place. The developed system consists of everting stringer and keel beam. This “cap” can significantly increase the strength and stiffness of the stringer. In wings and certain areas, stringers must follow complex contours. Consumer Caveat. It's the highest standard for the construction of rugged fishing … Static electricity can build up on occupants walking across any composite decking surface, including Trex, then produce a small static shock if they touch a grounded metal surface such as … Composite Pick and Place Many times the materials used, laminate construction, or part geometry do not allow for direct application of continuous tow or tape. Squeegee a thin layer of thickened epoxy over the exposed panel bonding area if the surface is heavily textured. These have only been manufactured for a few years and are a simple way to provide a secure connection between the stringers … US8746618B2 US13/284,927 US201113284927A US8746618B2 US 8746618 B2 US8746618 B2 US 8746618B2 US 201113284927 A US201113284927 A US 201113284927A US 8746618 B2 US8746618 B2 US 8746618B2 Authority US United States Prior art keywords laminate base ply plies stringer … Any perforations in the grid – to pass wiring or plumbing, for example – should be sealed with resin, and have a gasket to prevent chafe. Also, the degree of penetration of the injected epoxy cannot be accurately determined so you do not know how good your repair is. If however, you step the tabbing edges, the load from the stringer is gradually distributed to the hull. The composite stringer system and deck are laminated to the hull during construction, and foam flotation gets injected into all the under-floor compartments. Structural Fiberglass, Inc. PO Box 615-T 4766 Business Route 220 North Bedford, PA 15522 Phone: 814.623.0458 • Fax: 814.623.0978 Contact Us Only Composite Automation can supply this integrated end to end solution. Without removing the skin from the wood, it is often difficult to determine the extent of the rot. The lean techniques such as standard operating procedures, single minute exchange of dies, external set-up based on production efficiency improvement are used to optimize the stringer … Tabbing may be a simple piece of glass tape across the stringer/hull joint, or an integral structural part of the stringer. Drill a pattern of 3/16″ diameter holes over the rotted area. Once you have resigned yourself to cutting holes in your boat, use a mirror and flashlight and look for the following: Impact damage—Look for obvious fractures in the stringer. Pro-Line’s proprietary Fiberglass Integrated Structural Technology (F.I.S.T.) To duplicate the strength of the original skin it is important to duplicate the thickness of the original skin and to properly prepare the surfaces for a good bond. ... First, we are talking about wood cored stringers. Locate the reference marks far enough away from the repair area so they will not be disturbed when you prep the area. Every NITRO ® performance fiberglass fishing boat is built with the utmost care and a dedication to quality that you can see in the fit and finish, feel in the smooth ride and count on for a lifetime. Ceramicx have developed a novel heating system for the curing of thermoset resins in the manufacture of composite aircraft stringers. ... Composite Board Systems. For example, engine stringers commonly run from the transom to a bulkhead. Proper surface preparation of the repair includes washing with water and thoroughly sanding the epoxy surface. The impact of the hammer has a definite “dead” sound where the core is not firmly attached to the fiberglass. surfaces. More About Tate. Fiberglass repairs inevitably have some sharp edges or sharp “hairs” sticking out. The present invention refers to a technique for coupling the run-out section of stringers (5) with ribs, frames or other structural elements (1). Heavy-Duty Bolted Stringer. Center the largest piece of fabric over the stringer and reinforcement area and wet it out with the resin/hardener mixture. Remove clamps after epoxy cures thoroughly. It will become thinner and penetrate more deeply into the exposed end grain. Apply a liberal amount of thickened epoxy/404 High-Density or 406 Colloidal Silica mixture to one side of the contact area. This eliminates the need for a plywood form over which to laminate the plywood. A 12-to-1 bevel must be ground into any existing fiberglass left on a stringer. In those instances Pick-and- Place technology … Pressure-treated lumber is rot-resistant, not rot-proof. So, when buying a used boat, the thing to focus on is not whether or not there is plywood in the stringers, but whether or not that wood has been completely encapsulated. fabric. Molded Fiberglass Stringer System; Bench Cushion w/Slide Track Assy; STANDARD FEATURES: CRAPPIE. Prisma Preforms are lightweight structural components of laminated fiberglass composite structures. It used to happen, and occasionally still does, but it is not something that most buyers need to be worried about. The earliest fiberglass boats had very thick hulls because no one really knew what the composite of polyester resin and encapsulated glass fibers could take. Advantages and disadvantages of each design approach and structural schemes were emphasized. Usually, this means starting with a female mold. Composite transoms and stringers keep the weight down and are strong. If necessary, use heat guns or fans to accelerate drying. When removing and replacing stringer material, observe the following guidelines: Duplicate the shape and dimensions of the original stringer. By adding JETCAM's CrossTrack material tracking system, each roll and ply can be tracked from the freezer to the actual final part. Used boats that have plywood stringers are common, and the older the boat the more prevalent is the use of plywood. There are a lot of myths and mystery surrounding wood cored stringers which have been found to be “moist” or “wet.” before you skip past this article under the assumption that your stringers are dry, you might want to give it read. COMPOSITESWORLD.COM is the #1 website for composites materials and services. Stringers are often bonded to composite panels, as shown in Fig. Mix epoxy/404 High-Density or 406 Colloidal Silica filler to the consistency of mayonnaise. A 12-to-1 bevel provides adequate surface area for the transfer of loads across the repair area. When you replace structural cores, you have to use proper scarf bevels or other proper means of piecing the new core into the old. Cutting the matching bevel on the wood that remains in the boat is not as easy. Ever since its founding in 2004, NewTechWood has been leading the industry of wood plastic composite technology, developing products that make spaces more attractive and functional around the world. Cut out the damaged section of the existing stringer. For one thing, it is exactly repeatable. Measure the thickness of the skin on the original stringer. Apply each successive piece of fabric in the same manner. You have to create radius at the top edges of the cores and fillet at the core/hull and core/bulkhead inside corners—a 3/8 – ½” radius is a good starting place. idh by St. Simons. When repairing hardwood or highly loaded core areas, use a longer (12-to-1) scarf angle. For example, if the skin on the original portion of the stringer is ¼”-thick, the bevel needs to be 12 x ¼” or 3″ wide. If you desire a smoother cosmetic finish, the lay-up may be faired and finished. If not, you will have a great deal of difficulty reinstalling the equipment. Most new boats built today have a fiberglass grid stringer system that is actually made in its own special mold. All surfaces should be clean, dry and sanded. These guidelines will help you repair almost any damaged stringer. The epoxy that you use to glue the joint is an excellent gap filler. 206 Slow Hardener should penetrate more deeply than 205 Hardener before it begins to gel. Pro-Line completely eliminates wood rot with fiberglass stringers that we laminate to the hull for a superior one-piece hull system. Composite transoms and stringers keep the weight down and are strong. The 1st complete steel stair system in deck framing; Carries a 25-year limited manufacturer warranty; Compatible with any type of deck framing, even wood! Sorry, you need to enable JavaScript to visit this website. WEST SYSTEM Epoxy was created by Gougeon Brothers–sailors, builders and formulators who know the engineering and the chemistry required for high-performance composite structures. Chances are he will have a picture or a drawing of the system, or can get one. These make cleaning the bilge difficult if not downright dangerous. In this work, the applicability of structural health monitoring (SHM) technique for damage detection in two composite mono-stringers representative of composite fuselage are investigated. Remove clamps after epoxy cures thoroughly. When buying a used boat make sure the wood is fully encapsulated in fiberglass fabric and resin, with no bare wood showing. Brush the area free of dust or loose material. Because the wood in wood cored stringers is structural, any repairs you make to it have to be joined with a proper scarf. There is plenty of published guidance written by engineers as fiberglass boat building enters its seventh decade of active building, but none of it is mandatory for recreational boats. Remember, stringers are structural support members. But not so long ago many builders used plywood – even the best ones. The fiberglass skin covering an active core is primarily used to protect the wood and to attach it to the hull. The apparatus comprises a conformable locating Consumer Caveat. provides the rock solid foundation for all of our boats. Wet out the entire bonding surface, including the stringer, with a mixture of resin/hardener. In those instances Pick-and- Place technology can be employed to move materials into position to achieve the desired material placement. Let me illustrate this point with an analogy. Also work shows several variants of wing-root splice joints for different composite wings design and discuss While this is a common method of wood stringer repair, it is not nearly as effective as replacing the damaged area with wood. Rot damage—Wood cores rot from water leaking around fasteners and from water collecting where the fiberglass skin has delaminated. Dry fit and trim the new piece for a good fit. The usual causes of stringer failure are disintegration of the stringer core material, impact damage from slamming and grounding, and fatigue from normal use. There is however, nothing wrong with using a lighter fabric. Cut each of the remaining pieces 1″ (½” each side) narrower than the previous one. If you are replacing a section of plywood stringer, use a minimum of an 8-to-1 scarf bevel. When your repair is complete, you will have a little additional finishing work to do. The stringer system is the backbone of the bottom, the structure Depending on the brand and who your talking to, lots of stringer designs, grids and/or the like Prefabed stringers in recent years have become very popular whereas the stringers … A repair that is lighter than the original may fail prematurely. Allow the final coat to cure thoroughly. Often they perform several of these functions simultaneously. The decision support system, which contains several single and multiobjective … Bare or paint-coated wood suggests that lots of corners have been cut and consumers should move on. Use wood where wood was used, plywood for plywood, foam for foam, etc. Clamp the section in position. Some builders claiming to "encapsulate" their plywood grid actually tabbed the grid into place with fiberglass tape, then painted the rest with resin. Refer to the chart to determine the number of layers of a particular weight fabric necessary to achieve the thickness required. How to Secure Deck Stringers. Benefits of Underfloor Service Distribution. https://www.lowes.com/n/how-to/build-a-deck-composite-stairs-and-stair-railings Trim a new piece of core material to fit the size and shape of the void in the existing core. Without X-ray vision, or by cutting a sample core out of the hull, no one, not even a surveyor, can tell what's in the laminate. Some cores are structural, or active, and some are inactive, used primarily to provide a form for a structural fiberglass skin. Box Beam Understructure for STONEWORKS™ System. The proposed approach utilises a global surrogate model of the composite structure while accounting for uncertainties in material properties as well as geometry. Occasionally, you will find a material that at first glance appears to be plywood but on closer examination, you will find that all the veneers are oriented in the same direction. Short of seeing photos, the FIBECS stringer & engine chassis system … Most composite and PVC decking brands, like Trex and Azek, recommend a minimum joist spacing of 16 inches OC. 14.14, to help increase the panel’s buckling strength. The bilge of a boat can be very difficult to prepare for bonding, because it is likely to be contaminated (especially around engines) and many areas may be inaccessible. Accudyne Systems has created a “part purpose”, “right-sized” approach resulting in a more economical method for developing automation equipment to manufacture composite parts. Apply a paint primer or apply the topcoat directly to the prepared epoxy. It is often critical that the stringer gets replaced in exactly the same position it was previously located. The bonding surface should appear dull. Vista Railing Systems Inc. Fypon. Use a 50-grit grinding disc to prepare the surface. Autoclave pressure keeps the stringer section from collapsing during the automatic fiber placement (AFP) and composite cure … At one time or another virtually all builders used plywood to create fiberglass “hat” sections, frames and substructures. A common example of unidirectional plywood material is called laminated veneer lumber (LVL). Use an epoxy/low-density filler mixture for cosmetic fairing of the surface. Before you start any repair, it is a good idea to know what you are getting into. The usual causes of stringer failure are disintegration of the stringer core material, impact damage from slamming and grounding, and fatigue from normal use. The stringers and frames together create a grid-like arrangement that's attached to the hull in some way. On stringers with an inactive core or molded stringers (with no core), watch for variations in the skin thickness. provides the rock solid foundation for all of our boats. Our stringer system is built for each boat, so we have the ability to move things around to add features and … Used boats that have plywood stringers are common, and the older the boat the more prevalent is the use of plywood. Although each repair situation has its own unique problems, the following techniques are fundamental to stringer repair. Low-density core material is nonstructural, or inactive. Current technologies have low productivity and are unable to form contoured stringers without wrinkles. In this way, the liner serves two purposes and saves weight. Stringers molded separately and glassed or glued into place using sophisticated adhesives is the best way, in our opinion. The sub-floor stringers were designed as everting stringer to guide and control the failure mechanisms at pre-crush and post-crush failure stages of composite keel beam webs and core. Use the same species of wood as the existing core. A method is used for manufacturing a hollow composite stringer. For the validation of the tools an appropriate experimental database was not available (the POSICOSS test database could only be taken as baseline because degradation was not considered during the project). Tate’s composite board panels are supported by heavy duty bolted stringer understructure and can accommodate floor heights as low as 4”. The skin usually extends a few inches on either side of the stringer. Inject or pour resin/hardener mixture into the holes while the core is warm. Fixing damaged or delaminated stringers is one of the most common repairs associated with fiberglass boats. The epoxy mixture should squeeze out of the joint. For small areas of rot, dry and inject epoxy. Using the same species of wood as the existing core,trim a new piece of core material to fit the size and shape of the core in the removed stringer. Occasionally, stringers are pre-built in a mold and tabbed in after the hull is built. Continue to add epoxy to the holes until the wood can no longer absorb more. Install the new core section. Use the long-lasting stringer … This type of stringer has no core material, just fairly heavy fiberglass skins to provide the structural strength. Another good question is to ask the boat dealer if the stringers we laminated are in place, or were they molded outside the boat? They are there for a variety of reasons. Works with any type or brand of decking, including composite, PVC, aluminum, tile, wood and tropical hardwoods; Designed for low-maintenance, durability, ease of installation and safety It will require more layers per unit of laminate thickness and thus more time to install it. Prepare the surfaces for bonding. Stringers laid-up in situ over foam cores is a labor-intensive process and has to be done carefully. If you neglect this step, you will likely have another repair job in a few years when the core material rots. Remove the stringer and core. Allow the lay-up to reach its initial cure. Attempt to duplicate the species of wood used in the stringer as well as the dimensions of the wood. Were they glassed in or fixed with the use of a chemical bond? The new fiberglass will run onto this bevel attaching the new material to the original material. The mold is first sprayed with gelcoat, then fiberglass cloth is applied, and then resin is used to saturate or “wet out” the fiberglass. As the hulls got thinner, stringers and frames became even more important.A boat’s stringer system is one of the most important elements of a boat. Except for one panel, used as a reference panel, all of the panels had stringers without dropoff layers. Available in the same high-performance resins as our molded fiberglass grating … You may have to cut access holes in the hull liner or cabin sole to see the area in question. Use a wire brush to abrade heavily textured surfaces. Structurally, there is little difference between 5 layers of 24 oz. Shape the squeezed out epoxy into a fillet. You can use a more cavalier approach to replacing low-density core materials than you can for active cores. Dry fit and trim the new piece and existing core ends as necessary for a good fit. Grind it to create a fresh, no-gloss surface. Foam filling around wooden elements tends to promote mold and rot issues, not decrease them. Remove as much skin as necessary to remove all of the damaged core. When laying out the layers of fabric, do not allow the tabbing edges to end at the same place. Composite stringer and skin structures and methods for forming the same are disclosed. Boat buyers have to rely on the builder's reputation. Cut the necessary number of strips of fiberglass fabric the length of the stringer. Simply Brown Capped Composite … Wet out all contact surfaces of the hull and core. This creates a hull with exceptional strength, … With fiberglass boat building, however, the major components of the boat – the hull, deck, liner, and large parts like consoles—are molded from fiberglass. To fabricate a composite integrated stinger and fuselage skin structure for an aircraft, vulcanized rubber hollow tubes with stiffened inserts are placed within the hollow stringer sections. Typical plywood stringer system forms ready for the fiberglass laminate to be laid over it. The steel is 1/4” thick, only … Clean up excess epoxy before it cures. Support the hull. The wood does not supply the strength of the stringers – strength comes from the fiberglass over it, its shape, and the overall grid of fiberglass is what is important. Replace the fiberglass skin as described later. If you fail to do this, all the load the stringer is carrying will be transferred to the line on the hull surface where the tabbing ends, and the hull may crack at that point. Often damage to the core of a stringer is limited to a small section, or the stringer may be too difficult to remove. They make great patterns and will speed fitting the new core. “Unlike hollow stringers, the preform system can be co-infused and primary bonded with the hull laminate, which improves the structure, eliminates the expense of adhesives and saves weight.” “When we design the stringer system, we know if it is going to be fabricated using open or closed molding,” Lewit says. To help increase the strength and stiffness of the stringer and keel beam STANDARD for the coming. System ; Bench Cushion w/Slide Track Assy ; STANDARD FEATURES: CRAPPIE early hulls were so thick that will! Crack the hull inactive core desired material placement composite stringer system finishing work to do siding, Railing and deck.. Brush on heavily textured species of wood supported on a stringer and the composite stringer system the boat is not attached... 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