Generally, these traditions are oral rather than scriptural and passed down from one generation to another through folk tales, songs and festivals, include belief in an amount of higher and lower gods, sometimes including a supreme creator or force, belief in spirits, veneration of the dead, use of magic and traditional African medicine. Many of mythical contention have also been in the effect that European missionaries brought about the knowledge of God to Africa as well as religion. The mere existence of people like Kwaku Bonsam and websites that offer the West African equivalent of Western zodiac signs shows the ways in which indigenous priests are adapting their centuries-old traditions to the modern world and resisting the grand narrative of Christianity and Islam. It is believed that in rituals, people are regularly abducted and killed, their body parts used to create charms or “fetishes” that are said to bring riches to whoever bears them. In line with the thoughts of Taylor, ATR as animism is the fact that Africans are polytheistic. As stated earlier, the belief in the impersonal (mystical) powers is dominant and pervasive among traditional Africans. It was not enough to insist that every form of worship in Africa was of the devil, this was tied to African cultures as a way to reinforce the notion that Africans and African civilisations were lesser when compared to that of Europeans. Headquartered in Menomonee Falls, WI, the chain has over 1,160 stores in 49 states across the US. The traditional religions of Africa are human in the deepest sense, because they focus on people and their everyday problems. Even so, ATRs have a lot more deeper roots in a personal’s tribal setting thus making it hard to ease in implementation of other cultural and religious beliefs that are far eliminated from personal traditional beliefs (Johnson, 2004). Am happy now having completed the very difficult assignment, I appreciate help on the assignment. © Copyright 2009-2019. Therefore, the society played a crucial unifying factor to the dreams and beliefs of a person (Johnson, 2004). Pentecostalism has much in common with the way indigenous spiritualities are practiced, with its heavy emphasis on exorcisms and speaking in tongues. A 1685 law, for instance, prohibited the practice of African religions, and required all masters to Christianize their slaves within eight days of their arrival in Haiti. Native American religions, religious beliefs and sacramental practices of the indigenous peoples of North and South America.Until the 1950s it was commonly assumed that the religions of the surviving Native Americans were little more than curious anachronisms, dying remnants of humankind’s childhood.These traditions lacked sacred texts and fixed doctrines or moral codes and were … That is why we have freewill, and regardless of whether we choose to acknowledge that a living God exists or not, and regardless of how we choose to worship Him, directly or through deities, we will all be eventually accountable. That these rituals are done with the main aim of making money should hint at their true capitalist nature. There are numerous different religions practiced in Africa which do not get a lot of attention—just as there are everywhere. This falsifies the myth that ATRs were founded by one person and ascribed to a single Holy text. Additionally, ATRs carried African people embodiment. Many Western historians and scholars have a result perpetuated many of the ARRs myths. Will keep in touch with more assignments, this is Tom again, just wonna say thank you for assistance. Understanding African Traditional Religion. African religions - African religions - Mythology: In African oral cultures, myths embody philosophical reflections, express values, and identify moral standards. Religious colonialism is the lesser-discussed arm of colonialism itself, but its psychological effects have been as long-lasting. What exactly are rituals? Healthcare’s ‘toxic’ working conditions exposed in student’s documentary, Morocco on high Covid-19 alert as football continues, South African universities need to know why students’ suicide risk is so high. Once again, thanks a lot, The paper was so involving but am happy it is done. I couldn’t help but compare his very modern and professional service to the recurring stereotype of wild-eyed witch doctors providing consultations in a darkened room that is popular in Nollywood and even Western depictions of any African spiritual system. Christianity denotes the existence of God in the trinity of God the Father, God the Son and God the Holy Spirit. Discussions about the modern “innovations” in African cultures and religious practices are almost nonexistent, so most of us never consider that the growth of Pentecostal churches is encouraging witchcraft related fears or that market forces are central to today’s beliefs in witchcraft. Unlike the “primitive” witch doctor of popular imagination, Kwaku Bonsam has adopted children, opened a free elementary school and runs a cattle farm. There are also quite a few irreligious people—agnostics and atheis… The online tests conducted during the course were instrumental in the assessment of what was learnt by the trainees. John Mbiti, a prominent Christian theologian from Kenya who helped debunk entrenched ideas that traditional African religions were primitive, … The word idol is used to describe the object which is an emblem of that which is worshipped by the Africans. Well, it … Voodoo Practitioners Make A Pact With The Devil. As a young boy, Malidoma Somé was abducted by Jesuit missionaries and made to undergo indoctrination into European ways of thought and worship in colonial Burkina Faso. Among Catholics , sex of any kind is taboo for clergy - priests, nuns, and monks — but not for general believers. Slavery and World History. Therefore, the theory bundled all ATRs as one primitive appearance and nature thus, inferior to other religions including Christianity and Islam. It was through email that my friend introduced me to him, his service was paid for through his website, and after consulting with Ifá, he sent me my life path reading in pdf format. …, Continue reading “Finance: Coursework on Challenges Facing Financial Managers”, SWOT Analysis of Kohl’s Established in 1962, Kohl’s Corporation is an American company, which operates family-oriented department stores. 8 Misconceptions of Various Religions. (1976). It was hard for me but am good to go now, Thanks for the good work to save my studies. The represented divinities by the objects act as Supreme Being’s representative and who was not represented by any object in the ATR. Lecturer is always on our head but was pleased with my paper. Few people are aware that Voudou (rather than “voodoo”) is a faith based on harmony with nature, one that expressly forbids the killing of another being, or that most African … Many traditional African religions are based on guiding principles that are unfathomable to foreigners, more specifically those with interests such as historians and scholars. ... those misconceptions and misrepresentations of the facts presented by Eurocentric scholars. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/347555444?accountid=1611 In this article, it is clear that antitrust benefits the business when they enhance regulation of free markets. 3 And similar to this was the dialogue that took place between Edwin Smith, who had gone out as a missionary to Africa, and Emil Ludwig, an eminent biographer. There are several misconceptions concerning various religions and people of faith. Mudimbe's Theories on Missionary Discourse in Africa]. If you have travelled overseas from the continent, there is a likelihood that … Most religions can be descri…  In this case therefore, the argument is that missionaries did not bring God to Africa, instead God brought them to Africans. They are referred to as Nzambi’a Mpungu Tulendo in Kikongo, the central language of the Bantu-Kongo people, which is translates as the “everything in everything”. Proof of this is in the ritual killings that keep on happening in this modern age whether it is 100 graves dug up in Benin Republic or albinos being killed for their body parts in Tanzania. The theory of Taylor further regarded the African religion as quite primitive because ATR faithful believe in presence of spirits in every object. Earlier researchers and missionaries portrayed them often as primitive and barbaric and ridiculed them [I give many examples in my book: White Fathers in Colonial Central Africa - a Critical Examination of V.Y. Little known is the history of indigenous children across the world who were kidnapped, forced into seminaries and taught not only Christianity but also the superiority of Western culture and language in the hopes that they would go ahead as agents of European authority and “civilise” their own people. Size Defining characteristics Distribution What theory or theories of human behavior are explicit or, more likely, implicit …, Continue reading “Affordable Care Act Policy Analysis Assignment”, Challenges Facing Financial Managers Devlin, A. Get a non-plagiarized Paper written by our Professionals. To get around these restrictions, the slaves started to equate their gods with Catholic saints. Myth: Slavery is a product of capitalism. While there are similarities in the manner and place of worship in reference to Supreme Being and divinities, each ATR within its center had a signature of practice and belief ascribed only by a group of people. 1, Hutchison, 1913, p.xll. Lack of proper understanding of the embodiment led to creation of myths plethora in regards to ATRs. Although the slaves accepted Roman Catholicism, they did not give up their traditional beliefs either. This lack of knowledge as well as understanding of essentials has led to burgeoning of myths on African Traditional Religions (ATR). Further ATR myths have also referred to the religions as heathen, paganism and magical. Some religions (as well as cultures in general) consider various sexual practices taboo. The traditional African religions or traditional beliefs and practices of African people are a set of highly diverse beliefs that includes various ethnic religions. Traditional African religion is very popular and arrived here with our North and West African ancestors. Few people are aware that Voudou (rather than “voodoo”) is a faith based on harmony with nature, one that expressly forbids the killing of another being, or that most African faith systems believe in the concept of one God above all other divinities and deities, who function much as a pantheon of saints. Will Covid-19 vaccines bring life back to normal in 2021? The different African countries are made up of rural and urban regions. Yet religious colonialism on Africans is the main reason that most of us have come to view our own indigenous faith systems as epitomes of evil. It is a true statement of fact … In keeping up with the generation of Pentecostal pastors in Ghana who use the media to deride Ghanaian traditional religion as devil worship in the continued colonial tradition, Kwaku Bonsam uses similar tactics to strike back. What is African Traditional Religion? Africans Speak African. This lack of knowledge as well as understanding of essentials has led to burgeoning of myths on African Traditional Religions (ATR). Social Analysis Problem description How complete is our knowledge of the problem? Premium Essay Writing Services is the ideal place for homework help or essay writing service. Presenting local beliefs as nothing but backwater superstitions was part and parcel of how Christian missionaries operated in their bid to bring their religion and Western civilisation to the dark continent. African indigenous faith systems became “primitive”, uncivilised, a necessary evil that had to be dealt with, and an inferior system that had to be done away with. Thinking About Religion, 4. In this regard therefore, Africans worshipping piece of wood will not in any case despair if the wood gets lost based on the fact that wood is just a being’s representation and is served as a solid personification of goddess that is represented in its presence (Awolalu, 1976, p. 8). The cultural ATRs embodiment further discusses the difficulty in adoption of ATR by people in Europe and America because of the most significant beliefs and ideas inATR are alien in regards to their geographical and alien environs. In a fascinating case, Kwaku Bonsam stormed into a church with a camera close by, to expose a Pentecostal priest for soliciting the help of his deities and keeping an idol on the church environs. Whether it is being wrongly labelled voodoo, juju or witchcraft, indigenous African faith systems tend to be associated with darkness, animal and human sacrifices, violence and general backwardness. Now a diviner in hisDagara tradition, Somé wrote about the brainwashing he received at the seminary and the difficult journey finding his way back to his people’s traditions in Of Water and the Spirit. Take Ghanaian priest and healer Kwaku Bonsam, for instance, the focus of this New York Times article. These rituals, otherwise called witchcraft, are said to exist due to the superstitious nature of Africans, which arises from traditional beliefs. In bringing modernization and Christianity to Africa, many westerners had the notion that conversion from ATR would follow similar process as that in western religion. Vodou began when African slaves brought their native traditions with them as they were forcefully transported to the new world. However, what are some of the myths and real practices that have overshadowed the myths? The resulting video (below) was uploaded on Youtube, thus exposing the ways in which indigenous faiths influence the way modern Africans worship. However, they were generally forbidden from practicing their religion. There are few religions as globally misunderstood as African traditional religions. There is a great need to differentiate between legitimate spiritual systems and witchcraft, yet it is widely accepted that human sacrifices were part and parcel of pre-colonial faith systems. Even so, the construct is false because all ATR belong to a specific group of individuals where all ATRs evolved. These words are still relevant today. This explains further why Africans in slavery maintained their traditional religious practices. Commercialized by E.B Taylor, an English anthropologist and propagated by other scholars, the first myth considers ATR as animism. From Nigeria to Kenya, it is disturbing how we have come to accept the intolerant Western views of African indigenous spiritualities, believing that we are saved because we no longer engage in “idol worship”. Therefore under such circumstances, true ATR representation has been a daunting task leading to widespread ATR mythology. wonna thank you, I expected perfection in terms of grammar and I am happy. The lengths to which some missionaries went in their bid to “civilise” people they saw as inferior still astonishes. In the 1900s, “traditional African religions still claimed the loyalty of majority of the population of sub-Saharan Africa”. Most of these stores are in the Midwest and West, where the company has a strong presence with expansion plans …, Continue reading “Sample Essay on SWOT Analysis of Kohl’s”, Report on CITI Training Summary Report on CITI Training Course It is always very important that learner evaluate the lessons learnt during a training course. African indigenous spiritualities in the 21st century Hence, it cannot be avoided in the interaction between Christianity and African Traditional Religion. Generally, these traditions are oral rather than scriptural, include belief in a supreme creator, belief in spirits, veneration of the dead, use of magic, and traditional medicine. Her opinion is backed by Chief Adelekan, a Yoruba diviner who at a talk in the Manchester Museum insisted that human sacrifices have nothing to do with his indigenous worship. Most missionaries strongly believed that they were saving Africans from satanic oppression and ignorance, an idea that most post-colonial Africans have internalised. Diseases take millions of lives every year in Africa because of a lack … Studies in Comparative Religion, 10(2), Johnson, K. (2004). Many of the myths were however driven by superiority complex of the westerners in relevance to what they considered the ‘’burden of the white man’’ to modernize Africans. Last week, in a veiled comparison between African traditional religions and Christianity, which is the major religion in Jamaica, some of the key elements of African traditional religions were discussed using Kenya-born Professor John S. Mbiti, a well-known scholar and researcher of African religions, as the main reference. African Traditional Religion is referred to the diverse beliefs that are included in various ethnic regions in Africa.The religion is characterized mainly by: 1.Supreme Being The African societies and ethnic communities believed in a supreme being who had different names for different communities.The people worshiped this God through singing,offering sacrifices,dancing,dedications … We ignore the influences that these systems have had and continue to have on the way Africans worship and conduct their everyday lives. ANTITRUST IN AN ERA OF MARKET FAILURE. Harvard Journal of Law and Public Policy, 33(2), 557-606. Retrieved from http://organizations.uncfsu.edu/ncrsa/journal/v04/johnson_understanding.htm. Back in the 18th century, Haiti was governed by … It is often combined with elements of Christianity and Islam. Animism is therefore part of religious following to define summarily ATRs as animistic would as a result be very wrong (Awolalu, 1976, p. 8). Instead, myths are embedded and transmitted in ritual practice. Religion creates a significant part of African life. African traditional religion refers to the indigenous or autochthonous religions of the African people. Their belief in many spirits as revealed by their belief in spirits existence in every object in every object as a result hurls Africans to an abyss of holy aboriginality. In nearby Benin Republic, a country where majority of the population hold on to their indigenous faith, Voudou, Aligbonon Akpochihala hosts his own radio show and appears on television to dispel misconceptions about the Voudou faith. Sometimes misrepresentation lack understanding of traditional African religious practices a fact that made the historians and scholars to record misleading details on ATR thus, … There have also been constant debates on the existence of religion in Africa before missionaries work in the continent. This conception followed the same path that claimed that all ATRs are the same. We have been in the writing business since 2009, and have served many students who have kept coming back and even referred others to us. Due to the disdain and fear surrounding indigenous faiths, I tell very few Nigerians that I have consulted with a babalawo, a diviner of the Yoruba deity Ifa. The most important thing is that in the new South Africa religion and spirituality are used to create greater understanding and harmony rather than to divide people as was done in the past. Among the many easy writing service providers, we are the most preferred.This is no self-proclamation but a fitting testament from our customers. Looking for the very best because it looks perfect, will be back with more assignments, you helped me complete several other tasks as you handled paper. It is erroneous to assume that it is after Africans migrate to the Diaspora that they … 1. This belief has a theological basis. Africa is a massive continent with diverse religious traditions, to the extent that within the same tradition there have been variations. Homosexuality, incest, and bestiality are inherently taboo for those following the Christian Bible . 3 Leo Frobenius, The Voice of Africa, Vol. The same ATR effect remains solid even in their modern Christian worship (Johnson, 2004). To the modern African who distrusts these age-old traditions, indigenous faith systems can be nothing but evil. This anima also according to Taylor had the ability to live after death. Similarly, few Africans had published accurate ATR representation books while the published have not been circulating according to reports by historians and scholars. This policy aids clients to access products cheaply and in the correct quantity. This kind of contention strikes off the fact that Africans did not have religious belief and knowledge in God before arrival of European missionaries (Johnson, 2004). The animal that Africans worshipped according to Taylor had the ability of leaving one body and taking over other bodies such as men and things. While idolatry means worshipping false gods or unnatural beings, ATRs worship the objects mainly as symbols and emblems and not as means to themselves. Thanks a lot, Just wonna say thanks for attending to my assignment guyz. The three main religious traditions—African traditional religion, Christianity, and Islam—constitute the triple religious heritage of the African continent. For those who are open-minded and interested, there are a growing number of priests ordained in their respective spiritualities who are changing the face of indigenous African spiritualities on the continent and in the Diaspora. Christianity must recognise and study the theological basis of the traditional African belief in the existence of mystical and mysterious forces. It shows that African cultures and customs do belong in this world. A few months ago at a work meeting, the topic of ritual killings and idol worship came up and a colleague boldly objected to a idea that ritual killings had been traditionally done by Nigerians in pre-colonial times. What I do not tell them is that I consulted this babalawo over the Internet. Let’s put these common myths to rest. But in people’s minds, this modern practice of ritual killings has been conflated with indigenous faith systems. Now this confession is enough to freak out a lot of Nigerians, who absurdly believe that Ifá, a deity of divination would demand a human sacrifice. Conflict is a universal phenomenon that is inevitable in human interaction. With religion being the sensitive topic that it is, one close to the hearts of many African people, it is not always easy to have a sensible discussion about the problematic ways in which Eurocentric Christianity and Islam reached the African continent. From the early colonial period till today, misinformation about African indigenous spiritualities is spread and believed as truth.  Western scholars had in many cases referred ATR to as a form of idolatry worshipping only objects including rocks, sun, wood and trees. Even so, while it can be true that some ATRs make reverence and reference to things, such as belief in sanctity of rivers and trees, it would be right to bundle all ATRs as animistic. This construct is false entirely since Mbiti contends that many people in Africa were already aware of existence of God and referred to him as Ngai, Mungu and Unkulunkulu among others (Johnson, 2004). By Jacob K. Olupona. All African Countries Are Poor. The fact that heathen and paganism refer to people with no religion, and nobody worshipped false gods, strikes off heathen and pagan titles because they believed in Supreme Being and divinities (Awolalu, 1976, p. 7). If you are looking for affordable, high quality & non-plagiarized papers, click on the BUTTON below to place your ORDER. Sometimes misrepresentation lack understanding of traditional African religious practices a fact that made the historians and scholars to record misleading details on ATR thus, leading to growth of religious inaccuracies. To each his own. Sunni Muslims make up approximately… (vii) Idolatry: Idol means false god; and so idolatry is the worshipping of false gods or that which is not real. Even so, theologians of African descent including Mbithi shed more light on ATR thus, changing the Western ATR dialogue into a more objective one with relevance to practices, beliefs and purpose in the lives of Africans. The terms were also largely used in the colonial period. The worst thing is that it uses the local people to enforce itself”. However, this is a wrong ATR connotation because believers have a Supreme Being to whom is given all reverence. 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